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Apparel Glossary of Terms

#  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

# (number)

1x1 Rib Knit

A rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 1x1 Rib knit is created when the rows of the "knit" and "purl" stitch are identical.

2-Way Zipper

A zipper with two zipper pulls so the garment can be unzipped from either direction.

2x1 Rib Knit

A rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 2x1 Rib knit is created when there are two rows a "knit" stitch and one row of a "purl" stitch.

3-in-1 Jacket

A jacket that consists of two jacket layers that zip together. You can wear either jacket layer separately, or zip them together for extra warmth and weather protection.

4-Needle Stitching

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses four needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

4-Way Stretch

A fabric that stretches both on the crosswise and lengthwise grains of the fabric. Also called mechanical stretch, except mechanical stretch doesn't use spandex or other stretch yarns.

50/50

50-percent cotton/50-percent polyester fabric; also referred to as "poly/cotton".

A

Air Jet Yarn

A spinning technology which spins a single type of yarn or with a blend of filament yarns which provide for a virtually "pill free" fabric

ANSI

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization that promotes standards for industry and government. Most often refers to safety colors.

Anti-Bacterial

A finish or treatment that inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Anti-Microbial

A term used for a garment that is able to resist, either naturally or chemically, the effects of microbial secretions put off by the human body, resisting odor and increasing garment life.

Anti-Pill Finish

A treatment applied to the fabric primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric's surface due to abrasion during wear. See Pilling.

Athleisure

The movement where clothing designed for athletics is worn outside the gym to the office or to socialize.

B

Baby Pique Knit

A knitting method that creates a fine, small textured surface that appears similar to a very small waffle weave. Also see Pique Knit.

Back Yoke

A piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. This allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.

Bartacks

A specialized sewing stitch designed to provide immense tensile strength to a seam. Commonly used at stress points.

Basket weave

A variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads are woven side by side to resemble a "basket" look. Fabrics have a loose construction and loose appearance.

Binding

A strip of material sewn or attached over or along the edge of something for protection, reinforcement or ornamentation.

Biowash

Also known as bio-polishing or enzyme treatment. This is a chemical process to remove short fibers from fabrics so that the finished fabrics can have a cleaner surface. The process weakens the fibers so that they are more readily to break off, thus improve the pilling resistance but at the same time reduce the bursting strength of the fabric. Since the treatment is done in an acidic condition and at high temperature, noticeable color change will be unavoidable so usually this process is done before dyeing.

Birdseye Jacquard

A small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.

Blend

A yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one type of fiber.

Blind stitch

Stitching that is not easily seen or noticed. Often used in hems.

Bonded Fleece

Multiple layers of fleece are bonded together with an adhesive, resin, foam or fusible membrane to form a higher functioning garment.

Bonding

The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent into one unit.

Box Pleat

A single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.

Breathability

The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical or electrostatic action.

Brim

The projecting edge of a hat.

Broadcloth

A close plain-weave fabric made of cotton, rayon or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester.

Brushed

A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used to raise a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.

Button-Down Collar

Found on many men's woven dress shirting's, where the collar's wings can be buttoned to the front of the shirt, minimizing the spread between the wings.

Button-Through Sleeve Placket

A small placket located near the end of the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.

C

Cashmere

A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the cashmere goat

Chambray

A plain woven fabric that can be made from silk or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp and white filling yarns.

Chin guard

A fold of soft fabric around the end of the zipper that helps prevent abrasion. Also known as a zipper garage.

Chino Cotton

A sturdy, medium weight twill cotton fabric used for uniforms and sometimes work or sports clothes.

Clean-Finished Placket

Typically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. By cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, turning the edges under and fusing them in place, there is a straight placket with no raw edges. All that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.

Collar

The upright or turned-over neckband of a coat, jacket or shirt.

Color Block

Merchandising and/or cutting term whereby a certain type or block of colors ends up in the same place every time on the finished garment.

Colorfast

A dyed fabric's ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight and other environmental conditions.

Combed/Combed Cotton

A process by which the short fibers of a yarn are removed and the remaining longer fibers are arranged in parallel order for a high quality yarn with excellent strength, fineness and uniformity.

Cool Knit

A variation of pique that results in a different texture and surface appearance. It resembles a "waffle" pattern.

Cool-Crown™

A mesh liner used inside Adams Headwear which is designed to promote cooling and minimize staining.

Coolmax® Extreme

Wicking performance fabric that moves moisture away from the skin, keeping people cool and comfortably dry all day long

Corduroy

A cut filling pile cloth with narrow to wide ribs. Usually made of cotton, but can be found in polyester and other synthetic blends.

Cotton

Soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seedpod of the cotton plant.

Cotton Sheeting

Plain-weave cotton fabric, usually prelaundered, used for fashion sportswear. It's wrinkled to create crinkle cotton.

Cover seamed

Two needles are used, to overlap the threads underneath, reinforcing the seams with a smooth layer of threads. Provides a look similar to double needle stitching.

Crew Collar

A rounded, ribbed collar cut loose to the neck.

Crinkle Cotton

Cotton that is given a crinkled, lightly wrinkled or pleated appearance through chemical treatment or mechanical means. The treatment gives added texture to the garment.

Crop Top

A shirt style made to expose the midriff.

Crown

The upper-most part of the cap of a hat that is sewn to either a hatband, brim or sweat band.

D

Denier

A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber.

Denim

A cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill construction. The wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing.

Dobby

A decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer.

Double Knit

A circular knit fabric knitted via double stitch on a double needle frame to provide a double thickness.

Double-Needle Stitching

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

Down

The soft, fluffy under feathers of ducks and geese. Services as an excellent thermal insulator and padding for bedding, sleeping bags and outerwear.

Draw cord

A cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing, pulled to tighten or close an opening.

Drop Tail

A design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Sometimes referred to as an "elongated" back or extended tail.

Drop-Needle

A knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. Manufactured by dropping a needle from the knitting cylinder.

DuPont™ Teflon®

Trademark of DuPont. Stain resistant, water repellent finish applied to textiles. This treatment gives the fabric a protective coating without affecting any of the fabrics inherent properties.

Dyed-To-Match (DTM)

A term which characterizes buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.

E

Egyptian Cotton

Cultivated in Egypt's Nile River Valley, this cotton is regarded as one of the finest cotton in the world. The particular growing season gives the cotton the longest and strongest fibers, making it ideal for weaving into smooth, strong yarn. Commonly used in high-end towels and linens.

End-On-End

A weave pattern in which the warp yarn (the yard running lengthwise) alternates between colors.

Enzyme-Wash

Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed. The solution physically degrades the surface of the cotton fiber. The appearance and hand of the garment are identical to stonewashed and acid washed garments. However, the fabric surface is not damaged to the extent of a stonewashed or acid washed garment.

Extended Tail

A longer back than front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Also referred to as Drop Tail.

Eyelets

Small holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. Finished with either stitching or brass grommets.

F

Flame-Resistant (FR)

These fabrics and garments are intended to resist ignition, prevent the spread of flames away from the immediate area of high heat impingement and to self-extinguish almost immediately upon removal of an ignition source. FR clothing is NOT fireproof.

Flat Collar/Cuffs

A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments. Also known as welt.

Fleece

A fabric identified by a soft napped interior and a smooth exterior. Commonly used in sweats.

French Cuff

A shirt cuff that is folded back before fastening, creating a double-layered cuff.

French Terry Cotton

The knit jersey version of terry cloth. It features loops of pile on one side and a smooth, brushed finish on the other for softness and a lived-in, vintage look.

Full Cut

Refers to a garment's fit as being generous and roomy.

G

Garment Dyed

A dyeing process that occurs after the garment is assembled.

Garment Wash

Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured to remove sizing; it also softens and pre-shrinks.

Garment Washed

A wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax. The result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.

Grommet

An eyelet of firm material to strengthen or protect an opening.

Gusset

Triangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.

H

Hand

Quality or characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch--softness, firmness or drape.

Heavyweight

Fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.

Henley

Shirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.

Herringbone

A chevron or zigzag decorative pattern knit into fabric. Commonly used in golf shirts and twill shirts.

High Cotton

Refers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric.

High-Profile

A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is less fitted to the head with a high slope. Usually structured with buckram or other stiff fabric lining.

Houndstooth

A medium-sized broken check effect that is knit into the fabric.

I

Interlock Knit

A double knit fabric with a smooth finish on face and back of fabric. The process creates a luxurious fabric with increased strength, enhanced durability.

J

Jacquard Knit

Often an intricate pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. Typically, two or more colors are used.

Jersey Knit

The consistent interloping of yarns to produce a fabric with a flat, smooth face and a more textured, but uniform back.

Johnny Collar

A type of neckline that forms a "Y" at the front of the neck. Commonly used in women's sportswear.

L

Linen

A fabric made from linen fibers obtained from inside the woody stem of the flax plant. Linen fibers are much stronger and more lustrous than cotton. Linen fabrics are very cool and absorbent, but wrinkle easily, unless blended with manufactured fibers.

Lisle

High-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long, combed staple.

Locker Loop

A looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.

Locker Patch

A semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. The patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation.

Low-Profile

A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is more closely fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.

Lyocell

manufactured fiber made of regenerated cellulose (plant fiber). Lyocell has a similar hand and drape to rayon, but is stronger and more durable. It has a subtle luster and takes color well, and has good wrinkle-resistant qualities. It also absorbs moisture well.

M

Mèlange

A mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.

Mesh

A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions, including woven's, knits, laces or crocheted fabrics.

Microfiber

Tightly woven fabric from a very fine polyester thread, usually with a sueded finish for a soft feel. Generally lightweight, resilient, resist wrinkling and are inherently water repellent and wind resistant due to its construction.

Micro fleece

Crafted from ultra-fine yarn, this lightweight, high-density fleece is brushed less than a regular fleece garment for a tight look, excellent softness and warmth. 100% polyester micro fleece.

Micro stripe

An ultra-fine stripe knit into the fabric

Micro suede

A synthetic fabric napped on one side to resemble suede leather. Short, close nap gives a soft, smooth hand.

Mid-Profile

A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is slightly fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.

Mock Turtleneck

a shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.

Moisture-Wicking

moisture management fabrics which transport moisture away from the body, keeping the wearer cool and dry

N

Nailhead

A jacquard knitting pattern in which the jacquard forms a design similar to small nail heads.

Nap

A fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface. The fabric can be napped on one or both sides.

Non-Iron

A term characterizing fabric that has been chemically treated to resist wrinkles, eliminating the need for ironing.

Nylon

A synthetic fiber with high strength and abrasion resistance, low absorbency and good elasticity.

O

One-Ply Yarn

One strand of thread is used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

Open-End Yarn

Open end (OE) spinning is a technology to make yarns without a spindle. OE yarns have less twist but a more uniform, abrasion-resistant surface and are produced at much faster speeds than other spinning technologies. Fabrics made from OE yarns generally have a cleaner appearance, but are less soft than garments made with ring spun yarns.

Ottoman

A tightly woven, horizontal raised rib textured knit.

Ounces Per Square Yard

A measurement of fabric weight, a weight that customers usually ask for when making a comparison to competitive brands.

Over-Dyed

A process in which yarn-dyed fabrics or piece-dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.

Oxford

A fine, lightweight woven cotton or cotton blend fabric with a 2x1 basket weave variation. Typically used for dress shirts.

P

Packable

A feature that allows for the garment to be folded into a separate or attached pocket.

Patch Pocket

A pocket attached to the outside of a garment.

Peached

A soft hand usually obtained by sanding the fabric lightly. Can be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.

Pearlized Buttons

Buttons that have a pearl-colored hue.

Peruvian Pima Cotton

Peruvian Pima Cotton is often referred to as the "cashmere of cotton" because it is the softest, smoothest, "silkiest" fabric you can wear. Shrinkage standard for Peruvian Pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label.

Piece-Dyed

A dyeing process that occurs when the fabric is in yardage form after it has been knitted or woven, but before the garment is assembled.

Pigment-Dyed

A type of dye process used to create a distressed or washed look that results in soft, muted tones and a soft hand.

Pilling

A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric. See Anti-Pill Finish.

Pima Cotton

A term applied to extra-long staple cotton grown in the U.S., Peru, Israel and Australia. It can only be grown in select areas where the cotton is fully irrigated and benefits from a longer growing season for a softer, stronger cotton than standard cotton.

Pinpoint Oxford

Two fine yarns that are wrapped together for a fine and luxurious hand.

Pique Knit

A knitting method that creates a fine textured surface that appears similar to a waffle weave. Commonly used for polo shirts.

Placket

The part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens or buttons together.

Pleat

A flat usually narrow fold made in a piece of cloth by pressing or sewing two parts of the cloth together.

Ply

Two or more yarns that have been twisted together.

Polar Fleece

Knitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. The pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. This is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.

Polyester

A strong, durable synthetic fabric with high strength and excellent resiliency. Low moisture absorbency allows the fabric to dry quickly.

Poly-Filled

A warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. It has more loft than a regular nylon lining.

Polynosic

A type of microfiber that is a blend of polyester and rayon fibers and features similar characteristics to cotton and silk with excellent luster, a soft finish, and very little shrinkage.

Polypropylene

A hard fabric made from a plastic polymer of propylene.

Polyurethane Coating (PU Coating)

A finish commonly used in winter jackets, rainwear and wind wear to offer high performance water resistance, while maintaining the garment's breathability.

Poplin

A medium-to-heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Made by weaving one weft (vertical) yarn over and under each warp (horizontal) yarn, alternating each row. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.

Preshrunk

Pre-shrinking is not about pre-washing the fabric. It is a process where the bolted, uncut fabric is run through rollers containing tiny nubs that press the fabric over the nubs, creating grooves which condense it. This puckered shrinking effect then allows for real shrinking to occur when washed, without it being detected. Therefore, the fabric - not the shirt - is pre-shrunk before it is even cut and sewn.

Princess Seams

Shaped seams which can be found on the front or back of a garment. They are usually used specifically in women's fashion since princess seams are designed to make a garment fit smoothly and snugly.

PVC

A polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant.

Q

Quarter-Turned

An additional manufacturing process where the mill rotates 1/4 of a turn to put a crease on the side of the product rather then the front of the product.

Quilting

A fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place by stitching or sealing in a consistent, all-over pattern.

R

Racer back

T-shaped back of a tank, dress or sports bra.

Raglan Sleeve

An athletic cut sleeve set with a diagonal seam from the neck to the underarm. Offers more freedom of movement in comparison with set-in sleeves.

Rayon

A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters or other vegetable matter, with a soft hand. Frequently used for shirts and pants.

Reverse-Placket

When the buttons on a placket are on the opposite side from a men's garment. Commonly done on women's styles.

Rib Knit

A textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. It is highly elastic and retains its shape. Commonly used for sleeve and neck bands.

Ringer

A shirt featuring ribbed crew neck and sleeve bands in a contrasting color.

Ring spun

Yarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand.

Rip-Stop Nylon

A very fine woven fabric, often nylon, with coarse, strong yarns spaced at intervals forming a box so that tears will not spread.

Ruching

A French Term which means to gather, ruffle or pleat the fabric

S

Sand Washed

A process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls, resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.

Sandwich Hat/Bill

A hat where there is contrasting trim between the upper and lower part of the visor or bill.

Scoop Neck

Characterized by a deep, rounded neckline that is significantly deeper than normal necklines. Typically found on women's shirts.

Sculpted Hem

A hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail and untucked wear.

Seam Sealed

The process of treating the stitch holes and seams of a garment to prevent leaking and to ensure full waterproof integrity.

Seamless Collar

A collar that is knit in a circle. There are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made t-shirts.

Self-Fabric Collar

A collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment.

Self-Fabric Sweatband

Refers to a panel of fabric at the front of a cap that is constructed from the same fabric as the crown of the cap.

Set-In Sleeve

Most common style of sleeve, which is is sewn into the shoulder, as opposed to the neck.

Sheeting

A plain-weave cotton fabric with even or close to even thread counts in the warp and weft.

Sherpa Fleece

A knit terry fabric that has been brushed and washed to raise the fibers for a fluffy, plush feel. The thick terry loops stay soft and absorbent over time.

Shoulder-To-Shoulder Taping

Shoulder seams, as well as neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams, and reduces separation of the seams.

Side Vents

Slits found at the bottom of side seams, used for fashion detailing, as well as comfort and ease of movement.

Side seam

Seams that join the front and back together. If a shirt does not have side seams, it is tubular.

Silk

A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fiber's triangular, prism-like structure, which allows silk fabric to refract incoming light at different angles. Silk is recognized for its fine hand and fluid drape.

Single-Needle

A stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway. A single-needle seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion.

Singles

A term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn. The smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.

Slash Pockets

A pocket in a garment to which access is provided by a vertical or diagonal slit in the outside of the garment.

Slub Yarn

A yarn of any fiber which is irregular in diameter and characterized by contrasting fat and thin areas along the length of the yarn. The effect may be purposely created to enhance a woven or knitted material, or may occur in error as a yarn flaw.

Soft Shell

The term Soft Shell is increasingly used to describe garments that combine partial water resistance with partial wind breaking ability. Soft shell fabrics come in numerous varieties with many garments offering a combination, such as a wicking layer. In many cases insulation is combined in an attempt to replace several layers with a single highly flexible one.

Soil Release Finish

A fabric treatment that helps a garment release stains in the wash.

Spandex

A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking and will still recover to its original length.

Stain Resistance

A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains. Commonly used for industrial or restaurant uniforms.

Staple

The actual length of a cotton fiber.

Stonewashed

A finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling. Garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers. This process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. Different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.

Storm Flap

A piece of fabric that covers and protects an opening, usually a zipper, on an item of clothing. It is designed to add another barrier on more vulnerable parts of the clothing to protect against wind and moisture.

Structured

A headwear term referring to a cap with buckram added to the crown for structure.

Sueded

A process in which fabric goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.

T

Taped Seams

A strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. In outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing.

Taping

A design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. The term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.

Terry Velour

A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. It has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent. Commonly used for towels, robes and apparel.

Tricot Lining

A lining material that can be made from natural or synthetic fibers and has a unique weave that allows it to be smooth on one side white sporting texture on the other.

Tri-blend

A unique blend 3 fabrics - (normally) poly, cotton and rayon providing a soft feel and heathered look.

Triple-Needle Stitched

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses three needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

Tubular Collar

A collar knit in a tube form, so it has no seams.

Tubular Knit

Fabric manufactured in a complete circle without seams.

Tuck Stitch

Refers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. Gives the shirt a waffle weave texture and look.

Tuck-In Tails

A shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. This aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during normal activities.

Twill

A fabric characterized by micro diagonal ribs producing a soft, smooth finish. Commonly used for casual woven shirts.

Twill Tape

Narrow herringbone twill weave tape used as reinforcement at the stress areas - neck, shoulders, pockets - of a garment. It is also used as a design element, often inside plackets

Two Ply

A yarn in which its thickness is made up of two layers or strands, adding durability and weight.

Two-Ply Yarn

Two strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

U

Underarm Grommets

Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.

Unstructured

A headwear term referring to a low profile cap with a naturally low sloping crown. No buckram has been added to the crown for structure.

UVA-Protective Fabric

A term used to refer to a fabric that resists the ability of ultraviolet rays to penetrate the fabric. Protects the fabric from fading and the wearer's skin from UV rays.

V

Vents

An opening in a garment which assists breathability and can aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no visibility on the inside lining of the garment. Some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.

V-Neck

A type of neckline that forms a "V" at the front of the neck. Commonly used in shirts, t shirts and sweaters.

V-Patch

A section of material in a V shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collar, providing support against stretching the neck opening. Also a style detail.

W

Waffle Weave

A square pattern woven into a garment.

Water Repellant

The ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.

Water Resistant

A fabric's ability to resist moisture.

Waterproof

Ability to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. There are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.

Wicking

Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a fabric.

Wind Resistant

The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, without being completely windproof.

Wind guard

Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture. Also referred to as a Wind flap

Wind shirt

A typically water and wind resistant outerwear piece. Popular for golfers.

Wool

Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. The term wool can also be applied to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama or vicuna.

Woven

Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other. Woven fabrics are commonly used for dress shirts and camp shirts.

Wrinkle-Free

The basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying. The application and curing of wrinkle-free may occur before or after the garments are produced. "Pre-cured wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. Because the "post-cure wrinkle-free" means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because the "post-cure wrinkle-free" process is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.

Y

Yarn Dyed

A term used when yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the garment.

Y-Neck

A neckline which has the shape of a "Y"

Yoke

A part of the garment fitted closely to the shoulders. Typically seen on the back as on a dress shirt, but may also be on the front, as on a Western style shirt.
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